Wednesday, 8 January 2020

THE MARTYRS WALK- Tower Hill to Tyburn


The execution site on Tower Hill.
TOWER HILL SITE OF EXECUTION
Monday 18th November,  11am, emerging from the tube station on Tower Hill, a few hundred metres north of The Tower of London. We crossed the road towards the Merchant Seamen’s war memorial, an area of pale cream Portland stone walls, benches and statues covered in darkened bronze plaques with the thousands of names of seamen, their ships and the ports they originated from. It is a surprising multitude of names , ships and ports across the British Isles. The memorial completely surrounds and engulfs you as you walk through its sombre precinct. It makes you wonder at its enormity and its meaning.
Just to one side of this vast  edifice is a small garden with a cobbled square surrounded by looping chains. Within this  area are bronze plaques with the names of famous Lords, bishops, courtiers and ministers  with the dates that each individual was beheaded on this spot. Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More, John Fisher, Thomas Wyatt, Thomas Laud and many more. This representative list of names are just some of the 125 who met their end here. Each one paid the price for treason.
Half starved, week and in rags the person to be executed would be carried from the Tower to this spot. Some would bravely give a speech, often humble and pleading their allegiance to the monarch. Crowds of thousands would gather to see them die. 20, 000 spectators on Tower hill has been estimated at any one time. What did the crowds of onlookers feel and think?

THE BRITISH PILGRIMAGE TRUST
John and I had begun, The London Martyrs Walk, the British Pilgrimage Trust provide on their website with maps and information. A martyr is somebody who has suffered and sometimes died for a cause they believe in.  The walk includes execution sites where criminals were executed too. You could argue that the taking of any life is a sort of martyrdom. What is the morality of taking a person’s life for whatever reason?

SAINTS AND SINNERS
Some of the people executed on Tower Hill, in particular Thomas More and John Fisher were later created saints by the Catholic Church. Is making somebody a saint akin to advertising the church and a set of beliefs through celebrity? They were turned into high profile people.  A bit like a You Tube influencer today.  Saints ,”sell,” Catholicism.

John looking at the statue of Samuel Pepys in Seething Lane.

We walked a short distance from Tower Hill to Seething Lane. Samuel Pepys worked at the Navy Board from 1660, located in Seething Lane, as Clerk of the acts. He lived on the site of his office and attended church at St Olave’s Church, across the road. He is buried in St Olave’s.



 The churchyard and entrance to St Olaves Church in Seething Lane.

 Samuel Pepys cannot be described as a Saint, more a likeable rogue. He was an ordinary man, with strengths, as well as faults and failings. He was greedy, lecherous, kind, thoughtful, critical of others, mocking, friendly and liked his food and drink and loved a good party. He was also secretive in his attempts to protect himself from his King discovering his personally held views. He wrote his famous diary in a sort of shorthand  so very few people could  read it, and of course he didn’t want his wife to know about some of his nefarious activities. He was apparently religious, probably because he had to be, to avoid censure from the authorities.

 Just on the corner of Seething Lane, next to Pepys Navy Office was located, in Elizabeth I’s  time the town house of one of her most loyal and powerful courtiers, Francis Walsingham. From 1570 onwards he was the spymaster, torturer and sent many to their deaths.
 Saints and sinners, you wonder what makes them what they are? What sort of person will die for their beliefs? What sort of person will destroy another because of their beliefs? What sort of person remains merely ordinary?

The ,"Gift of Cane," memorial to 18th century slaves.

A MEMORIAL TO SLAVES

In amongst shiny glass and steel office blocks we came across a modernist set of sculptures, the memorial to slavery.  Long slender pillars represent sugar cane. The words of a poem by Lemn Sissay, entitled, “Gift of Cain,” is  carved into a stone pulpit beside the slender pillars and extend onto the  pillars themselves.  The theme of the poem is the power of money and the power of brotherhood. It also commemorates William Wilberforce, the  18th century emancipator. It reminds us of how human beings can be sacrificed, for, not just beliefs but for money and wealth. The monument was unveiled by Bishop Desmond Tutu, in 2007, in commemoration of the bicentenary of the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade.

The Gilt of Cain
By Lemn Sissay, 2007
Here is the ask price on the closed position,
history is no inherent acquisition
for here the Technical Correction upon the act,
a merger of truth and in actual fact
on the spot, on the money – the spread........................


SOME LONDON CHURCHES
Our journey, was paced out over three consecutive Mondays. It could have taken  less time, however  we came across  galleries and museums, coffee shops and lunchtime pubs which captured our time, and, anyway, we took it easy and enjoyed the mere act of walking, talking and taking in the world around us.,
 Amongst the places we saw and visited were twenty-four churches and one Chinese Buddhist temple. Many of the churches were Roman Catholic. The penal laws which had come about in Henry VIII’s time and had brought about the execution of Thomas More and John Fisher, John Houghton, the Abbot of Charterhouse and other priests and nuns, were started to be repealed in 1766. The most important of the penal laws were removed by the Catholic Relief Act of 1829. We went into churches that were able to be built because of this act.

We came across many of London’s, Medieval,  Stuart and Georgian Churches. One of the key issues that emerged for me from visiting all these churches, were the various shades of Christianity they represented and the freedom this country provides people of all faiths.
St Etheldreda’s in Ely place, which is a medieval church and had been the chapel for the Bishops of Ely from 1250,  was bought by the Rossinian order in 1874 when the Bishop of Ely put the dilapidated church up for sale. The Rossinians were an order of Catholic Priests from Italy who came to England after the 1829 Catholic Relief Act to rejuvenate Catholicism in Britain.
   
MISCONCEPTIONS
We had some misconceptions as we went along. All Saints in Margaret Street is a point in question.
 All Saints is a very elaborate Victorian Gothic style church. As we entered, a funeral was taking place. The church was packed with a large congregation. One of the funeral directors asked us to stand quietly to one side. A youthful   choir in red cassocks and white surplices sang angelically. A priest dressed in a richly embroidered black Roman chasuble swung a thurible sending clouds of incense around the altar. The officiating priest with assistant priests was intoning the mass in Latin. We didn’t stay long because we thought we were intruding. The requiem mass took John and I back to our youth of Latin, High masses. We imagined whoever the dead person was had requested this Latin Requiem mass.It was only later that John and I discovered that this was not a Roman Catholic church at all. It is High Anglican.  Amusingly they appeared more catholic than the Catholics. When Henry VIII first took over the headship of the church, the changes to religious ceremonies were hardly noticeable. Everything appeared to carry on as before as far as everyday observance was concerned. The headship of the church in England had fundamentally changed from the Pope to Henry but outwardly, to the ordinary person, very little had changed. Here was evidence that a part of the Anglican community has kept Roman Catholic traditions.

All Saints Margaret Street with the entrance to London Fo Guang Shan Buddhist Temple on the left.

 A DIFFERENT TAKE ON CHRISTIAN WORSHIP
All Souls in Langham Place, just north of Oxford Circus and next door to the BBC Centre, is very different. Young enthusiastic parishioners, on ladders and stools were decking the church with Christmas decorations. Microphones and speakers were set up for a vibrant musical experience. This church appeared to be an evangelical young person’s church. A church of action. It too is Anglican. The Christmas decorations, the lack of religious icons, paintings and decorations made it look more like a cosy community hall than a church. I could see no crucifix or stations of the cross as displayed in All Saints Church.  This is a different approach to religion, a more vibrant youthful approach. Singing modern songs, rock groups, youth activities and prayer meetings are the order of the day here.  Comparing it to All Saints Church it demonstrates the breadth of approach to Christianity there is in this day and age.

All Souls, Langham Place.

ALL FAITHS
We also on our walk came across the Freemasons Hall in Holborn. We went in to visit their museum displays. The Freemasons have formed their own set of secretive rituals and keep many of their work and beliefs secret. Only men can become freemasons. They generally hold to old testament principles.

  The people at, The London Fo Guang Shan Temple in Margaret Street near Oxford Circus welcolmed us in. It was located just opposite All Saints Anglican church. This was not part of The Martyrs Walk itinerary but John and I thought it would be an interesting experience if we went inside. A Chinese lady welcomed us into the temple and told us about the Buddha and Buddhism. It occurred to me the philosophy of the Buddha ,the complete personal rejection of material things, greed, hate and delusion is not far removed from  St Francis of Assissi, who also lived a life of frugality, leaving earthly things behind.




St Giles in the Fields.

ST GILES, A CHURCH WITH SOME HISTORY
St Giles in the Fields, is an interesting church. St Giles Church, focusses us back to The Martyrs Trail. The church is located just north of Oxford Street not far from Centre Point. The site was founded by Queen Mathilda in 1101 as a leper hospital. Over the centuries its lurid history developed. On the 20th September 1586 Lord Babington and his plotters who were Catholics trying to overthrow Elizabeth and put Mary Queen of Scots on the throne were executed outside the church. One of Francis Walsinghams great successes. In 1665 The Great Plague began in the parish. Twelve Roman Catholic martyrs including Oliver Punkett, who were betrayed by Titus Oates,  were buried in the churchyard.  John Lord Belasye, a friend of Charles Ist and later after the Restoration,  a friend of Charles II, is buried here. A large stone plaque relates the story of his military feats and leadership at the battles of Naseby, Edge Hill and Newbury.

A plaque, displayed inside St Giles describes the military campaigns John Lord Belasye took part in.

Later during the 1830’s  Dickens published Oliver Twist. It was this area, around St Giles,that was the location for Fagan’s pickpocketing exploits. By the 19th century the area was a ,”rookery,” where criminals and the destitute lived. Inside is a pulpit removed from The West Street Chapel from which John and Charles Wesley regularly preached from.

Thomas a Becket was born near this spot next to the Guildhall.

THE REFORMATION AND ALL THAT TROUBLE.
John and I passed the site where Thomas a Becket, the most famous martyr of the Middle Ages, was born, adjacent to the Guildhall.This brings to mind the cult of pilgrimage, perhaps not a bad thing in itself depending on the motivation but also that side of catholicism, in the Middle Ages, the selling of indulgences and the virtual buying a place in heaven that brought about, in 1517, Martin Luther's ninety five theses and eventually the Reformation which of course links back to the main reasons for the martyrs this walk celebrates.

OTHER WAYS TO DEATH
We entered Guildhall art gallery and then descended to the basement  where the ruins of London’s, Roman Amphitheatre built in AD 70, was located. Gladiators fought to the death on this site in front of crowds of thirty thousand. Dying and killing as a spectacle for the entertainment of others, has a long history and does seem innate in the human make up.

The curved line of dark bricks marks part of the circumference of the Roman Amphitheater in the forecourt of The Guildhall.

On we walked to ,”Postman’s Park,” near the Barbican just north of St Pauls Cathedral. This park commemorates people who freely and consciously gave their lives for the lives of others. A different angle on dying. Some of the ceramic tiles erected on a wall in the park read:
 “ James Hewers, on September 24th 1878 was killed by a train at Richmond in an endeavour to save another man.”
“Thomas Simpson, died of exhaustion after saving many lives from the breaking ice at Highgate Ponds January 25th 1885.”


There are numerous plaques remembering acts of self-sacrifice like this in Postman’s Park. It is thought provoking that there are people who will sacrifice their own life in this way. Do we all have that capacity? Nobody can possibly know until the moment comes.

Ceramic plaques on a wall in Postman's Park commemorating those who have given their lives for others.

THE OLD BAILEY THE SITE OF NEWGATE PRISON
We moved on to, The Old Bailey, The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales. It is located on the site of what was Newgate Prison. From 1783, Newgate, took over from Tyburn as the public place of execution and was notorious for public hangings.  From 1868 to 1902  hangings  took place within the confines of the prison, because of the civil disturbances that could occur during public hangings. At St Sepulchre Church, nearby, there is displayed the bell rung outside a condemned persons cell the night before they were to be executed.

An entrance to The Old Bailey.

OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST
The statue of the Golden Boy of Pye Corner, just along from the Old Bailey, is reputed to be the site where the fire of London was finally extinguished. Nobody knows how many people died in that conflagration but surprisingly it was possibly quite a small number. Most people evacuated London for the fields around the city in plenty of time.


The Golden Boy at Pye Corner.

The Fortune of War pub near St Bartholomew’s Hospital is where the,” Resurrectionists,” laid out  freshly exhumed bodies from local burials so that surgeons from the hospital could examine them. The surgeons needed the bodies for their research. “Body Snatching,” was an illegal occupation.

SMITHFIELD, PLACE OF EXECUTION AND PLAGUE
On John and I walked towards Smithfield Square and the great Victorian meat market and where meat has been bought and sold since Medieval times. Here we visited St Bartholomew’s the Great, Church. The churchyard is the site of a plague pit. A statue of Henry VIII is positioned above the entrance arch to the precinct of this church. His reformation of the church in England and his taking on the role of the head of the church created a challenge for many high ranking Catholics in the country and brought about their deaths.

 Within the area of Smithfield  is located a plaque commemorating the execution of Robert The Bruce. The area was used for burning people at the stake during Mary Tudor’s reign and during Elizabeths reign people were hung drawn and quartered here too.
A statue in the middle of Smithfield .

These means of execution were incredibly barbaric. The levels of suffering must have been immense. Why were these methods of execution used? This was beyond just ending somebodies life but making every part of them suffer indescribable pain. The people to be executed had obviously become anathema. The Spanish Inquisition, for instance, were experts at eradicating a person’s very existence. This is hard to believe but religions do this. Even today ISIS execute people in the most barbaric ways. There is something in the essence of ,"belief ,"where people think they are so right and that others are so wrong the non believers  are damned.

I wondered about the people who carried out these forms of barbaric executions. Later the nun giving us the tour of the English martyrs relics kept  at Tyburn Convent enlightened me. It seems so obvious. Smithfield was a meat market. The butchery trade was carried on  there. A butcher is an expert at killing animals and dissecting them. They had the tools and the skills, so it was butchers from Smithfield who performed the process of hanging drawing and quartering and burning at the stake. These people thought it an honour.

The entrance to The Charterhouse.

CHARTERHOUSE AND THE CARTHUSIANS
We walked on to Charterhouse and stood at the gates where the abbot of the Carthusians, John Houghton in 1537 had his head displayed after being hung drawn and quartered because he would not sign Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy. Ten other Carthusians were imprisoned in Newgate Prison at the time, nine of them starving to death and the last beheaded on Tower Hill.

It is here also in Charterhouse Square where a vast plague pit was constructed in 1348 by the Carthusians and where they buried the dead  of the most virulent plague that ever reached England. It has been discovered recently with what great respect and care the dead of the plague were treated. The construction of cross rail in the area disrupted the plague pit and archaeologists were able to examine plague skeletons.

DEATH
By now on our walk John and I had encountered many sites of death and execution. How does a person face death? John Houghton, the abbot of Charterhouse knew he was going to be brutally killed involving a lengthy process of being hung drawn and quartered. People who caught the plague had hours or days to live. People rotting in prison had a long time to contemplate their fate. Some died because of disease as with the plague but many of the people who were executed were those who kept to their beliefs against the law of the land. Slaves, treated as commodities, not as human beings, died on the slave ships or because of  the harsh punishments given by masters.  I wonder how they  dealt with it? 


A triptych of The English Martyrs in  St James in Spanish Place.

THE SPANISH CONNECTION
St James in Spanish Place, Mayfair is a  Roman Catholic Church. It is  frequented by the Spanish ambassador and has connections to the Spanish monarchy. The present church is opposite the site of a smaller chapel that was used by the Spanish Embassy when it was located just round the corner in Manchester Square.  St James is connected to the English Martyrs who died at Tyburn. It has a triptych of the English Martyrs and an information board naming them all in a side chapel to the right of the high altar. The Spanish Embassy, during Elizabeth’s reign, supported, clandestinely, Catholics in England. Relics, parts of the martyrs bodies and blood stained clothing had been collected secretly after their executions and removed to the Spanish embassy and then taken to Spain for safe keeping.

JESUITS "They're behind you."
Nearing the end of our walk John and I visited the Jesuit Church in Farm Street, Mayfair. Jesuit priests made up a high proportion of the English Martyrs executed at Tyburn during the reign of Elizabeth I. They included, Edmond Campion and Robert Southwell amongst others. The Jesuits, many of whom were academics and theologians and philosophers were at the spearhead of Catholic Europe’s response to the Reformation and English Jesuits were at the forefront of trying to infiltrate and set up catholic resistance in Protestant England.

The the chancel and altar in the Jesuits Church, Farm Street.

THE FINAL PART OF OUR WALK AND A VISIT TO TYBURN CONVENT
From here we walked on towards Marble Arch passing the memorial to animals who have suffered and died in military campaigns around the world through the centuries. We walked past Marble Arch and made our way to Tyburn Convent. The Tyburn Convent close to the site of the Tyburn Tree, the place of execution, is run by an order of contemplative Benedictine nuns.  It was founded in 1901 by Mother Marie Adele Garnier and  follows the rule of St Benedict. The order fled to England in 1901 because of the French laws against religious orders. Mother Marie chose the site of Tyburn where many English martyrs had been executed during the Elizabethan age. This monastery is now the Mother House of her Congregation which has convents in England, Scotland, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Italy and France.  John contacted the Mother Superior before we made our final part of The Martyrs Walk to request a guided tour of the convent and to learn more about the English martyrs. We arrived at the convent early for our appointment and had time to visit the chapel and see the monstrance on the altar where the perpetual adoration of Christ goes on. We rang the doorbell to the convent and a nun appeared. We told her our request and within minutes another nun appeared and welcomed us. She took us to the crypt of the chapel to show us the altar with a reconstruction of Tyburn Gallows  erected above it. We saw relics of many of the martyrs, bones, pieces of skull and blood stained fragments of clothing. These were the relics of Jesuits and Catholics executed at Tyburn. Edmond Campion, John Houghton, Oliver Plunket and Margaret Ward and others are commemorated here.  The relics had been  kept in various churches in Spain. When the King of Spain heard that the Benedictine Nuns had set up a convent at Tyburn in 1901 he had them returned to England for the convent to keep.
Relics of the English Martyrs kept by the nuns at Tyburn Convent in their crypt.

The nun who gave the tour was very friendly, extrovert and full of fun. I was slightly disconcerted at the joy and glee she seemed to portray in describing the process of being hung drawn and quartered. She is a nun who leads a contemplative life of mediation and prayer, focussed on her, “bridegroom,” Jesus Christ. The death of the body is low on her scale of priorities. Death to her brings her to her desired destination, heaven and union with Christ of course.  I suppose the executions of the past, in her mind, were merely a step along the way to eternity no matter how painful a process.

TYBURN TREE  where the gallows were.
After leaving the convent we followed the nun’s directions and John and I found the actual site of Tyburn located on a traffic island at the junction of Edgeware Road, Bayswater Road and Marble Arch leading to Oxford Street. Three trees are planted in the shape of the gallows and a stone roundel is laid in the pavement in the centre of the three trees with the words, “The Site of Tyburn Tree,” etched into it. Traffic rushes past. People gather on the traffic island as they cross Edgeware Road and hurry on. Nobody stopped to look at the three trees or the roundel. Nobody was aware of the significance of the site they walked over.

A traffic island at the End of Edgware Road and Oxford Street. The three trees mark the shape of Tyburn gallows and the roundel in the pavement between the trees marks the spot.

When the highwayman Jack Shepherd was executed here in 1724 the audience reached 200,000 apparently. Huge crowds followed the condemned person from Newgate Prison to Tyburn. Hanging days were public holidays and crowds turned out. “Speakers Corner,” got its name because of the speeches many condemned people made before their execution.

The walk was rich in experiences for both John and myself. It provided us with a lot to think about;  the inevitability of death, the process of death, the experiences of the executioner, the law maker, the monarch who was the apex of this judicial and sovereign system and the executed.



The site of Tyburn Tree.

    The British Pilgrimages Trust:     https://britishpilgrimage.org/portfolio/london-martyrs-way/

"The Gift of Cane," by Lemn Sissey:
 https://www.londonremembers.com/memorials/gilt-of-cain-slave-trade



Monday, 14 October 2019

SANDITON four more episodes STRESS AND CONFUSION



Episode 5
Things are hotting up and beginning to go at a pace as plot themes continue and develop.
One important Austen aspect I think Andrew Davis does highlight and  portrays in this series is the power and strength of women subverting the male patriarchy. Charlotte continues to be feisty. Georgiana continues to be rebellious and Esther Denham and Clara Brereton continue to be wicked. Lady Denham with her wealth is enabled to boss everybody.

LADY CUPID

Charlotte continues to act as a go between, between Georgiana and Otis. She brings a letter  for Georgiana. As a guise to allow Georgiana to read the letter in the vicinity of Mrs Griffiths Charlotte reads out loud from Mary Brunton’s  book , “Self Control.” A witty 18th century type of joke there. Ha! Ha!
Lady Denham continues to be a match maker for her neice Esther. She has actually been writing letters to Lord Babington in Esthers name.Esther is mortified and seething with anger of course. A meeting between Lord Babington is arranged, Lord Babington proposes. Who would have thought? Esther turns him down.He is far too dissolute for her, poor man She really is in love with her ,”brother,” Edward. A passionate full on kiss later on proves incontrovertibly the truth of the matter to us the viewer.

THE CRICKET MATCH

. An annual Sanditon cricket match between the Workers and The Gentlemen is a crowd puller and a positive advert for the town. Tom is desperate for it to go ahead but there is a problem. Will the  workers team turn up? They have not been paid their wages. An equally desperate Young Mr Stringer , the captain of the workers team, needs money for materials and equipment to continue building Sanditon.  Tom Parker is in a mess and it seems to be getting worse for him.

 CHARLOTTE PLAYS CRICKET

All of Sanditon turns out on the beach to watch the match. Lady Denham, Clara, Esther, Georgiana and Charlotte and many more are spectators. The gentlemen team wait for the workers team to arrive. Tom Parker, to assure their participation, promises them their wages. The workers arrive but Stringer loudly proclaims the workers grievances about no pay and Lady Denham and  Mrs Parker, who have both been kept in the dark about the dire financial situation now know all. What will happen next?
The game begins. The Workers are all out for 86 runs. The Gentlemen go into bat and are doing well. It looks an even game. One of the gentlemen can’t take his turn batting and Charlotte offers to take his place. Shock horror. This is a gentlemen’s game after all. Charlotte is unperturbed and tells how she often played cricket with her brothers and sisters. She goes into bat and hits the final runs for the Genltemen’s team to win. Another knock at the patriarchy. Hurray!!!Mr Stringers lenient bowling and chivalry may have had something to do with it though.

MISS LAMBE'S ESCAPE

While everybody has been distracted by the cricket., Georgiana has escaped and run off to the town where she thinks she is going to meet Otis. Otis is not there but she is bundled into a coach and driven off. Charlotte is horror struck. She and Sydney have another shouting match, this is becoming a regular theme in this series. Charlotte, the feisty individual she is, decides to go off to London…..is that where Georgiana has been taken... on her own to find Georgiana. End of episode. This is turning into a lively version of Miss Marple or even Poirotte. We shall see. Everything is up in the air. Phew. Exciting.


Episode 6:

SYDNEY PLAYS MR DARCY

Think European noire films from the 40s. Think Grahame Greens ,”Third Man,” starring Orson Wells filmed in black and white. Charlotte arrives in London at night time, alighting in the dark and dingy narrow foul smelling streets with shifty dangerous characters at every turn, in every doorway and alleyway. “I don’t know where I am?” She begins to wander aimlessly looking for the address she has for Otis, a hopeless endeavor it would seem. She is out of her depth. A man grabs her from behind and we imagine all sorts terrible things are about to happen when a tall, burly shaded character in black intervenes and brutally punches her assailant. There, suddenly is Sydney standing next to her ready to fight off all attackers. I must admit I have been remiss in this area of Sydneys abilities as a pugilist. In the first episode I failed to inform you that Sydney takes part in a boxing bout for the entertainment of an audience. He savagely beats up and cuts his opponent. So Sydney has history in the art of fighting. It must have been a miracle that Sydney should have been there at the very moment Charlotte was about to lose, even her life, perhaps. But this is an Andrew Davies story of course.

OTIS IN THE UNDERWORLD

The address for Otis is an inn near the docks. He uses the premises merely to pick up his post occasionally. Otis does not live here. Sydney and Charlotte enquire about Georgiana. The only possible place is a brothel. Charlotte, in her innocence enters with Sydney who is well known by the madam. Oh dear me. Its getting worse. It appears he is a client. Charlotte strangely does not appear too perturbed by this revelation. Should she have been? It seems Georgiana has been sold to a wealthy gentleman who, when we see him, bears some resemblance to portraits of the Prince Regent. He wants to marry Georgiana  for her inheritance. Otis turns out to be a gambler deep in debt to this unsavory character.
We begin to understand some of Sydney’s behaviour towards Otis and his reluctance that Georgiana should associate with him.

ANTIGUA CONNECTIONS

In Antigua Georgiana’s father, who was dieing, an old friend of Sydney’s has entrusted Georgiana to his care until she becomes of age to claim her inheritance. Sydney thinks of Otis as a predator only wanting to marry Georgina to get her fortune, a husband takes over the wealth of his wife, to pay off his debts and to have a fund to fuel his gambling habits. They find Otis eventually and he denies this version of things and feels hard done by. He loves Georgiana.

ESCAPE AND RESCUE

The three find the house of the gentleman who has bought and paid for Georgiana and discovers they have eloped to Gretna Green, a place across the Scottish boarders where a license to marry is unnecessary. That reminds me of Wickham and Lydia but we have no time to make connections. Things are moving at a pace. They have already left a few hours previously. Charlotte and Sydney take a carriage to intercept them. A carriage chase ensues at a speed, all of the blistering pace of perhaps 20 miles an hour, that's when the going is good of course. The excitement builds and the coaches pull level. Their drivers whip the horses into faster and faster motion. Sydney times his jump and leaps on to the driving seat of the escaping carriage. A sharp elbow to the chin of the driver renders him unconscious. Sydney halts the carriage and retrieves Georgiana. The portly, slavering, kidnapper calls, “ What about my £1800? Actually that is a considerable amount of money. Georgiana is returned to Sanditon safely, intact and unsullied, I think.

SYDNEY HELPS HIS BROTHER TOM.

Meanwhile back at the ranch, sorry Sanditon, things are not going well.Tom thinks he has hit rock bottom. He can’t pay his workers at all. There is no more money for materials and he despairs that he has lost the trust of his dear wife. He looks, and we feel, his deep depression. Sydney is informed about this situation in a conversation between the two brothers and Sydney offers £3000 of his own money. Tom is humbled and grateful. He has been saved, for now. He has got to repair the relationship with his wife though. I have had my suspicions about Sydney’s wealth. He obviously has made money in his West Indian adventures although he declares to Charlotte that he deplores slavery and does not condone it. So how has he got his wealth? Another episode will reveal more. There are only two to go.

LADY DENHAMS WILL

At the end of the last episode Lady Denham appeared to be dieing or was she dead? No, she is still alive, bedridden and weakening and declares in a feint voice. “ I am well. There is nothing wrong with me. I shall recover.” Are we to believe her? Lord Edward begins a frantic search for Lady Denhams will, searching day and night. He leaves nothing unturned. His sister Esther thinks even with the possession of the will they can’t persuade Lady Denham to change it. 

CLARA BRERETON ON TOP.

Just when his searching proves fruitless Clara appears, holding between her thumb and forefinger, the will. She had possession of it all along. Lord Edward promises that she can have one fifth of the proceeds of the will. They destroy the will burning it on the fire.  With the will gone Lord Edward will be the natural recipient if there is no other evidence. Clara at first agrees to this arrangement. However, she has other ideas. More in keeping with the brothel in London, we wonder further about Clara’s past, she skillfully seduces him., Taking charge she climbs on top of Lord Edward’s ,”manhood,” as she prostrates him on the floor and ,”rides,” him to their mutual, gasping, heavy breathing climaxes.( My goodness this sounds like a slutty novel. Ha! Ha!) Clara then ups the stakes and demands a quarter of the will. Why? How? Because she will tell Esther what has just occurred and also, I suppose, if she becomes pregnant that will be another factor to help Lord Edward keep his word.  I can’t help thinking that the wily old Lady Denham will have more than one copy of her will. Surely her solicitor will have a copy ? But we shall see. So, would you like to know what was written in the will? Of course you would. Clara and Edward read it before destroying it. The bulk of the inheritance was for the development of Sanditon. The rest, well, to a donkey sanctuary. I do not jest.

LONDON BALL

Anyway. Things are just beginning to look up for Tom Parker and Sanditon. Lord Babington, who is now appearing to be quite a good sort and not the dissolute type everybody thinks he is, arranges a ball in London for all the glitterati to promote a sailing regatta Tom wants to hold off the coast at Sanditon. Tom thinks this regatta will be the highlight of the year and draw many more people to Sanditon. The ball goes ahead and Charlotte reluctantly  attends. Sydney has changed his mind about Charlotte and shows her a lot of attention.  Is this the beginnings of love? Charlotte is told that it is love she is feeling when she meets a mysterious, sophisticated, lady ensconced in the green house at the back of the ballroom. Who is she? Charlotte reveals her thoughts and mixed up feelings to this stranger. Sydney arrives to take Charlotte back to the dance floor. But a twist at the end reveals that a past love of Sydney’s, Eliza, who married another man for money instead of Sydney is attending the ball. She is now widowed. Sydney shows her attention and is obviously distracted by her. We finish this episode, the camera on the face of Charlotte, distraught and not knowing what on earth is going on.
Yes, this is getting quite good. But, as I have said before its definitely not Jane Austen.


Episode 7

JUST STRAIGHTFORWARD NASTINESS

If you have every watched,” The Adam’s Family,” an American horror, comedy film and TV series about a family made up of ghosts and monsters you can imagine the beginning of this episode, the penultimate episode to Sanditon. In a darkened room, Lady Denham is laid out like a corpse, surrounded by her supposedly grieving family, Edward Denham, Esther Denham and Clara Brereton, all looking suitably somber.  Lady Denham is not yet dead but we assume the moment is nigh. Esther is left on her own with the dying Lady Denham and as she lies there. Esther pours her poisonous heart out into the ear of Lady Denham telling her as she dies about their scheming plans to take her wealth. She speaks about the burning of her will and the sexual passion enacted on her ballroom floor between Clara and Edward. Esther is venomous and sneering in her recount. There is not a flicker of consciousness from the apparently unconscious Lady Denham. The viewer can’t help thinking that all this ire surely cannot go to waste. There is the overriding feeling that Lady Denham will suddenly sit up straight and make us all leap out of our seats in shock. Was she conscious enough to take in the bile and nastiness that poured out of Esther's mouth into her ear?

SYDNEY GOES SWIMMING AGAIN

It is the early morning. A mist clears over the calm sea. In the far distance,  onto the pristine, flat, yellow sands, beneath a pale blue morning sky emerges a far off naked Sydney  fresh form his early morning sea bathing. Then suddenly the camera turns to a shot of his slender hairy wet legs as he apparently dries off his upper half  with a towel, out of view. All erotic thoughts are annulled. Good sex is  about being aflame with passion. Here we just have wet hairy legs. Nice!.Theo James, who plays Sydney Parker, permanently has a furrowed look of concerned anguish, and confusion on his face. This facial expression has not altered for the whole seven episodes so far and I doubt, with that expression apparently frozen on his face , it ever will.

LADY DENHAM SHOCKS THEM ALL

Charlotte visits Georgiana at Mrs Griffiths lodgings. Georgiana seems to be recovering but is in a sulk. Will she be reunited with Otis? Not during this episode anyway.
Clara, Edward and Esther are profoundly shocked to their very ,”foundations,” by the sudden news that lady Denham has made a full recovery. Dr Fox is delighted. What is more she was ,”compos mentis,” all through Esther’s vituperative speech about the hatred for her and the awful things they plotted against her  while she apparently lay unconscious. She knows all the nasty intrigues that have been going on. After the  lack of eroticism in the  scene with Sydney’s hairy legs earlier, Lady Denham gives eroticism another great kick in ,”the behind.”. She is disgusted at the thought of Clara and Edward having sex on her ballroom floor and declares that she will have to have the ballroom resurfaced. A,”cold shower,” on the ardour of Edward and Clara.  Lady Denham proceeds to pack Clara off back to her family never to return and then proceeds to kick Edward out too, never to return. She appears to want to retain Esther for some nefarious reason, perhaps, enticing her with the thought that she alone remains to inherit her fortune. But, that is not what the original will said! I don’t know. Lady Denham has obviously got something up her sleeve yet.

THE REGATTA

Tom Parker is proceeding with plans for the regatta.  The regatta is to be a skiff race with rowers on a local river. Anybody who lives or has visited the South Coast of England knows that a regatta is a race between sailing boats but I suppose that would be too cumbersome and slow an event for a TV series. Andrew Davies transposes the regatta to a rowing race on a river instead. Lady Worcester, the mysterious lady with the advice about love Charlotte met at the London Ball arrives in Sanditon with all her wealthy aristocratic followers. Tom Parker thinks it is to attend the regatta but Lady Worcester has come to see Charlotte. Of course the regatta benefits from her attendance and the attendance of her friends.

ELIZA CAMPION IN SEARCH OF SYDNEY

Eliza Campion is among the visitors and she is in Sanditon to continue and further her relationship with Sydney. Charlotte feels rejected and in emotional turmoil. Charlotte and Sydney have their moments and Sydney’s look of pained confusion does sterling work. Eliza of course commandeers most of his attention. She is beginning to see Charlotte as an adversary in Sydney’s affections. Sydney is  confused.
At the regatta Charlotte performs her job as Mr Parkers’ accountant. She collects  the takings  and records the receipts, while Lady Worcester, Eliza Campion and all the other members of Sanditon society watch Mr Stringer and his boat win the regatta in a close finish with the Parker brothers boat. Charlotte has a moment or two with Mr Stringer who is obviously in love with her. The last episode will bring that situation to a conclusion. It has to.

LADY DENHAM SAYS A FEW THINGS.

Lady Denham, has some of the best lines in this episode. She gives a heartfelt speech to her nephew and nieces explaining the corruption and misery money brings and lambasts the three of them using that brilliant word, "venality," to describe their behaviour.

SIR EDWARD IS AT A LOSS

Sir Edward is seen wandering the streets of Sanditon staggering about drunk. He puts on a cheerful face to Esther when he brazenly announces, “We have won. It’s all ours.” He thinks Esther,as the only apparent heir to Lady Denham  will include him in whatever she gets. He is mistaken of course. Esther rejects him. He has broken her heart and treated her abominably and she has now had her eyes opened to Edwards atrocious treatment. She rejects him. That nasty snake in the grass, that pompous, vain, revolting character, that worm ridden,"pineapple," is laid low. Hurrah!! You feel like shouting.

WHAT ABOUT ESTHER DENHAM?

 But what has Lady Denham really in store for Esther? Maybe she has a cruel come down prepared for her part in all the subterfuge. There is some positive hope for her. Lord Babbington who at first always appeared as a ,”playboy,” has developed into a truly kind and caring person. He loves her and professes that he can only imagine the terrible acts and  injustices her brother has brought to her. He has not given up on Esther. He approaches her again to marry him. By the look on Esther’s face, a look of doubtful hope  she may be changing her ideas towards him. Again, the last episode will reveal all.

LADY WORCESTER RETURNS TO LONDON

Lady Worcester returns to London announcing she will return with a friend. Tom Parker can only assume her friend is The Prince Regent. However, I personally think Lady Worcester is far too much a sane, kind, intelligent and thoughtful  person for an alliance with that profligate. I will be disappointed in her if it is him. Surely not.  I wonder who she means though? And why is she so interested in Charlotte? We will see. This is getting interesting. To be truthful  this series of episodes  has been interesting for some time.
The episode ends with Eliza Campion returning to London apparently with Sydney and we are left with Charltote, a bereft, heart broken, expression on her face. Suddenly, unexpectedly, Sydney appears. He looks at Charlotte.
“I am only my truest self when I am with you.”
 End of episode. Role credits. Blimey! Is that good or not?



Episode 8

A WALK ON THE SANDS
Well, we are here, Episode 8 and we think everything is going to be resolved or , maybe not. Jane Austen would bring things to a gentle close and give our character’s hope and we as the readers would feel only  good wishes for everybody’s future. But, what of Andrew Davies in this imagining of Sanditon?

The episode starts with a loan Charlotte Heywood walking along the wide flat yellow sands of Sanditon beach, a calm flat sea in the background and a benign blue sky above. We almost wish we could enjoy the walk with her, but this is a contemplative moment for Charlotte and I would not wish to break her calm solitude.

Her walk takes her back to the centre of Sanditon town with passersby, carriages trundling along and Tom and Sydney Parker, standing in the street, contemplating Sanditon’s progress. A self-satisfied moment with some hope for the somewhat, at times, harassed Tom Parker. Tom is his ebullient self on greeting Charlotte but Sydney and Charlotte look coyly at each other, both holding the memories of their last meeting and what was said between them.

GEORGIANA
The scene changes to Charlotte visiting Georgiana in her rooms and the two talk about Otis and other matters when Sydney reappears to check up on his wayward ward. Charlotte and Sydney have a moment or two to talk and they both have Sydneys words to Charlotte in their minds, “ I only feel my true self when I am with you.”  We can sense the chemistry. They are evidently beginning to arouse strong emotions in each other.

THE STRINGERS
Mr Stringer announces to his father that he has received a letter informing him that a London architect will take him on as an apprentice. A choleric Old Mr Stringer is not impressed but Young Mr Stringer stands firm in ambitions.

LADY DENHAM AND ESTHER DENHAM

Lady Denham has turned into a tyrant towards Esther giving her orders and making demands of her.”Play the pianoforte for me.” “ Lady Denham you know I can’t play very well.” “Play it, and sing while you are at it.” This is getting  nasty. The old bat!! Suddenly Lord Babbington arrives and wants to pay his respects to Esther. Esther declines but Lady Denham makes her go for a carriage ride with Lord Babbington. The carriage ride begins with a frosty atmosphere.  As they ride along the beach Lord Babington suggest Esther takes the reins.Some sort of symbolism  for what is about to occur  I think. She takes over driving the horses and they race at breakneck speed across the sands. Esther shows joy and glee on her face and begins to enjoy herself. Lady  Denham reveals her past love life to Esther and how she lost her great love, Tolly because she wasn’t socially acceptable. All of a sudden the viewr begins to feel sympathy for Lady Denham as indeed by the thoughtful look on Esthers face, Esther does too. Esther is changing her view of Lord Babbington. When he proposes  again they have a discussion about her liberty. Will she still be able to make her own decisions? Will she be a kept woman? Lord Babbington reassures that he loves her because of her independent spirit and wouldn’t want her any other way. This is a discussion about the role and influence of women in a marriage. Some great 18th century social commentary. Esther, under the circumstances agrees to marrying Lord Babbington and they kiss, Hurray!. A good kiss, but, not as good as what is to come!! Wait for it now.

A WALK ALONG THE CLIFFS
We next see Sydney and Charlotte taking a cliff top walk. Charlotte purportedly is on her way to get a fitting for the dress she will wear at Sanditons summer ball. We think, great, another ball. We need one of those to complete this series. However as they walk Sydney realizes they are going away from the town but Charlotte doesn’t mind. She has that giddy look of love.They stand. They look into each others eyes. Their hearts are pounding. Our hearts are pounding. They both admit to not sleeping for thinking about eahc other. We remember what Sydney said to Charlotte,“I am only my truest self when I am with you.” They pause. They look into each others eyes some more. The camera gets a close up of their two faces getting closer and closer . They pause. They look. We look. Their lips are almost touching. Then!! The climax. They kiss. WOW!!! Elation all round.

THE SUMMER BALL

I feel exhausted writing this. Now, you must be aware, Sydney has not yet asked Charlotte to marry him. So let’s hold on a bit longer.
Charlotte and Mrs Parker arrive at the ball together. Charlotte can talk intimately with Mrs Parker. “How do you know when you are in love?” asks Charlotte. “With Mr Parker I just knew. You just know when you are.” The ball scene is a glittering and bright affair with chandeliers and candles. Tom Parker announces to the gathered throng, “ Let joy be unconfined.”

THE STRINGERS, FATHER AND SON ARGUE

Meanwhile Young Mr Stringer is getting ready for the ball but argues with his sick father about things like ambitons, improving yourself in society, his hopes for Charlotte Heywood. Young Mr Stringer is in love with her obviously and his coming apprenticeship. Old Mr Stringer is against all this ambition.They part on angry terms as Young Mr Parker goes to the ball. Left on his own, in a candle lit room, Old Mr Parker has an apparent heart attack falling onto the lit candles knocking them over. We can guess the consequences. The scene moves to the ball.

THE BALL AND SOME REPERCUSSIONS

Now things move along. Georgiana confronts her guardian Sydney over his intentions about Charlotte. She doesn’t like Sydney and berates him to Charlotte. This is not foreboding well it seems. Young Mr Stringer dances with Charlotte but she admits to him she is in love with Sydney. He actually takes it very gracefully. They talk about his future plans and apprenticeship and Charltote is very supportive and encouraging. So that little problem is over.Lady Denham and Esther arrive at the ball. Lord Babbington spies Esther and admits his love for her to his friends. He is obviously besotted. They dance together. Everything is going swimmingly untl Sir Edward gatecrashes the ball shouting and remonstrating. He reveals his love for his,”sister,” and pleads for her to come with him. The whole assembled ball are aghast. They now know about their incestuous relationship. Sydney bundles Sir Edward out of the ballroom to who knows where. Esther looks pleadingly at Lord Babbington. He reiterates his undying love and pronounces he doesn’t care about her past. All is well. The ball continues. Lady Denham when asked about this revelation merely replies she has no opinion about it.

SANDITON ABLAZE

Sydney manages to dance with Charlotte and they of course have a balcony scene  looking down on the assembled dancers. No betrothal yet. We are kept on edge. When will they say the words?
An alarm goes up. Sanditon is aflame. The fire begun by Old Mr Stringer knocking over candles has spread. A whole terrace of houses is aflame. Buckets of water. Chains of people and an 18th century fire engine pulled by Sydney and the other men of the town arrives. They douse the flames but the terrace is destroyed. Tom and Sydney stand amongst the debris the following morning. Arthur,and Diana come to their sides. The Parkers resolve to rebuild Sanditon to an even better standard. The insurance will cover the money. AGH!! The insurance. Tom has not got round to insuring the buildings of Sanditon. Diana pledges her endowment and so does Arthur. They are unselfish for all their irritating quirks but then Sydney enquires how much debt needs to be repaid. £80, 000. “Cor blimey governor!!” I’m speechless. Gloom and doom hovers over the group.

DECISIONS ARE MADE

We are nearly at the end now, I assure you. Arthur and Diana return to London.  Arthur vowing to be a bachelor for the rest of his life, to the relief somewhat of his sister. Dr Fuchs has taken up residence in Harley Street. They intend to visit him. often. Sydney and Tom request a weeks leeway from Lady Denham who demands that her investment be returned.Sydney goes off once more on a quest for finances. Charlotte is left wondering what is going to happen. Sydney returns. He has acquired the necessary investment to cover Tom’s costs. All is cheerfulness. Sydney and Charlotte are left to talk. Sydney looks grave. Charlotte, “ What’s wrong Sydney?” Sydney reveals he has asked Eliza Campion to marry him. She will provide the money to save Sanditon. OH, MY, God!!! Charlotte is devastated. Sydney looks a broken man.
We do have a joyous wedding though. Lord Babbington and Esther Denham marry to great celebrations. And the assembled throng look exceedingly happy including Charlotte, Which is a little puzzling. A continuity fail or just Charlotte putting on a happy face for the wedding? ,  Eliza has arrived back in Sanditon to claim Sydney. 

 THE END OR NOT THE END? THAT IS THE QUESTION.

Charlotte decides to return home to her family at Willingden. And at the end we see her riding in a coach across the cliff tops. But wait, suddenly Sydney rides up and stops the coach. Charlotte and Sydney talk and he professes his undying love but he must marry Eliza. Charlotte is heart broken as she travels on. We are heartbroken for her and Sydney is a mess. The END.

So many strands unfinished. Georgiana and Otis, what happens between those two? What will happen eventually between Charlotte and Sydney? Surely Eliza must die in some horrible circumstances to leave Sydney eventually free? Will Sanditon be rebuilt? Will Tom Parker eventually get a settled life? Will Mr Stringer become the greatest architect ever known? What will happen to Lady Denham? And, what of the dastardly Sir Edward and Clara Brereton? I can see her running a brothel in Covent Garden but that’s just my opinion. And whatever happened to Lady Worcester who befriended Charlotte and promised to return?  So many things. Yes, I know, there must be a second series. .Andrew Davies can’t leave us like that. Can he?

Tom Parker to Charlotte, " has this all been a terrible experience for you Charlotte?"
Charlotte," It has been the most amazing experience of my life."

A great answer for a twenty two year old who has a whole life ahead of her. A realistic end then. Perhaps the only end there should be?


Rita Watts, manages,
"All Things Jane Austen Group." She lives in Boston, Massachusetts and will be posting articles about the eight part series, SANDITON:  
https://www.facebook.com/groups/151251875424419/about/

Rita, has over 47,000 followers.