Monday, 9 April 2012

A CHARLES DICKENS TOUR IN LONDON



Charles Dickens has  always gripped my consciousness from that first moment I saw the heart stopping appearance of Magwich confronting Pip, in David Leans 1946 adaptation of Great Expectations. Magwich emerged monstrous like a nightmare from behind the tombstone in the desolate graveyard set in St Jame's Church,Cooling, a viilage on the marshes near Rochester,in the Thames Estuary. If you ever visit the graveyard in Cooling to see Pip's  graves, '....five little stone lozenges each about a foot and a half long which were arranged in a neat row ... and were sacred to the memory of five little brothers of mine....'  you cannot fail to be moved.Reading, A Tale of Two Cities, and being horrified at the knitting  women sitting beside the guillotine is chilling. Or perhaps you would rather laugh until your sides split at the eye wateringly funny situations that Pickwick and The Pickwick Club members  get themselves into. These  have become part of my memory and imagination.

Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth in 1812 and first arrived in London with his family in 1814 at the age of two for a short interval before his family moved to Chatham, in Kent, to live. In 1821 they moved back to London. His father John had lost his job with the admiralty in which he was a clerk in the pay office. The Royal Navy was going through a period of restructuring at the time. He obtained a job at Somerset House in The Strand. The streets  close to The Strand were to become  an imaginative influence on Charles Dickens for the rest of his life. A walk through this area, north and south of the Strand, takes us through the different stages of Dickens life from poverty to fame, from anguish to success, illustrating the hard grinding work he continued throughout his life.

We begin our walk at the Embankment tube station, very close to the steep steps, littered with Starbucks cups and Macdonald paper bags, that lead up to the walkway beside Hungerford Railway Bridge.  Here the crowds pour out of and into the District Line tube, making their way to offices on The Strand or to the grand arched marble and granite edifice of Merryl Lynch  in Villiers Street. surrounded by coffee shops and bars. One particular place illustrates the attractive appeal of the Victorian world and that is Gordon’s Wine Bar set at one end of a Victorian terrace of shops. Its grimy windows and flaking painted stucco exterior make it look  as though it is a piece of old Dickensian  London reminiscent of smog bound Victorian alleyways and grimy, poverty stricken beggars and thieves, like Bill Sykes and prostitutes such as Nancy. Wine bottles dripping with melting wax candles light the dim dark cellared depths of this establishment that sells expensive vintage wine. Class comes with cobwebs now it’s seems.

Beside Hungerford Bridge, on The Victoria Embankment, is a good place to begin a Dickens walk in London because it was here  that Warrens Blacking Factory was situated in 1820 next to Hungerford Steps. Victoria Embankment,that great Victorian engineering achievement, was designed and created by Joseph Bazalgette in the 1860’s, narrowing the Thames at this point and obliterating the site of the steps. Hungerford Bridge takes its name from that once dilapidated, ramshackle piece of Victorian London where small factories, poverty and dillapidation rubbed shoulders. Near the site of Warrens Blacking Factory, was the location Dickens used for the lodging house  where Mr Macawber and his family stayed before emigrating to Australia.In the novel David Copperfield, Macawber is imprisoned for debt in The Kings Bench prison, which was a debtors prison located close at the far end of Borough High Street in Southwark.

 Warren’s Blacking Factory, owned by one of his mother’s cousins,was where Dickens started his working life.Charles Dickens suffered terribly in the blacking factory at Hungerford Steps, which produced bottles of blacking to polish boots with. His job was sticking labels on the bottles and it must have been numbingly boring for him. What horrified him also was the sound of the water rats scratching and scrabbling beneath the floorboards on which he had to stand.  The humiliation it must have caused somebody who was not only sensitive but very intelligent is hard to imagine. For the rest of his life Dicken’s was a driven individual almost manic in his desperation to keep working. A result of his childhood experiences. No matter how hard he worked and how much money he earned he always felt that it could all be taken away from him. 

His father, John Dickens was a spend thrift.  He was forever getting into debt. When Charles was twelve years old John Dickens was taken to court over his debts and ended up in the Marshalsea debtors prison that was situated just off Borough High Street  across London Bridge. There is a link between the fictitious Mr Macawber, imprisoned in The Kings Bench prison for debt and Dickens own father imprisoned in The Marshalsea. These two prisons were located close to each other. The only remaining piece of The Marshalsea, that god forsaken piece of London, is a high brick wall that lines an alleyway that leads off Borough High Street.  It used to be the exterior wall of one side of the prison. The site of the Marshalsea itself is now a small park.  When Dickens became famous and made money not only did Dickens finance his own household, he bought houses for his father and mother to live in and continually paid his father’s debts to the day his father died.

From Hungerford Bridge walk up Buckingham Street by way of the ancient river gateway to Buckingham House that is the only remaining part of Buckingham House that once stood here and was the London home of the Dukes of Buckingham.  Dickens knew the gateway because it stood beside the blacking factory. Buckingham Street leads to John Adam Street, a rather dull brick canyon like street. The entrances to the RSA (Royal Society of Arts) and the art deco Adelphi Hotel. Dickens had lodgings  on the site of The Adelphi Hotel which, in his  day, was the Adelphi Terrace, designed and built by John Adam. Here Arthur Clennem, a leading character in Little Dorrit stayed and David Copperfield too. It had become somewhat rundown and dilapidated by the 1820s.

From John Adam Street  turn left into Adam Street and then a short few steps to the busy populous Strand.  Dickens would not recognise The Strand today but he would know the two churches placed one after the other along The Strand as you walk towards Wellington Street; St Mary le Strand , followed by St Clement Danes. As you come out on to The Strand, to the left, a few hundred yards away, is the modern glass fronted branch of Coutts bank. Angela Burdett Coutts was the daughter of the founder of Coutts and her father’s heiress. She was the wealthiest woman in England during  the Victorian period and became a close friend of Dickens. She was a devout Christian and wanted to do good charitable works. She discussed with Dickens charitable projects that she could finance. Dickens, with her money, set up Urania Cottage near Shepherds Bush. It was a home for the salvation and education of women who wanted to escape the perils of prostitution. In many ways it was a successful enterprise and they sent many, “saved,” women to become good wives in Australia. In front of you as you reach The Strand is the Adelphi Theatre. It has a modern, probably 1950’s front to it nowadays but it was in this theatre that many of Dicken’s novels were dramatized and performed.

The Strand has many connections with Dickens. Further along, towards Fleet Street,next to Waterloo Bridge is Somerset House where John Dickens, his father, was first employed when he came to London. In the Strand too is the main campus for Kings College London. It was next to this that  Kings College School was set up before being moved to Wimbledon in the suburbs. Dickens eldest son ( he had ten children) , Charles Culliford Boz Dickens, attended Kings College school whilst it was in The Strand.
Walk along The Strand towards the traffic lights at the junction with The Aldwych and Wellington Street.Cross over to Wellington Street. You are entering an area that was the centre of Dickens working life as a novelist.  The Lyric Theatre on the corner is another theatre where some of Dickens novels and stories were dramatized. Opposite The Lyric is the site of Household Words, the magazine in which Dickens serialised some of his novels. He was the editor and part owner of the magazine. He argued with the publishers, Bradbury and Evans. Dickens wanted more editorial say. The other partners would not allow him this.Dickens then decided to start another publication called, All The Year Round, in offices a mere few yards away from the offices of Household Words. This was very successful and Dickens had far more control of this new publication.  




Charles Dickens Coffee House, in Wellington Street. This building was the premises of Dickens magazine, All The Year Round.



The actual building where All The Year Round was published is still there and is known as, Dickens Coffee House. The rooms above the ground floor were all rented by Dickens and he had them turned into bachelor appartments. There were bedrooms for himself and his friends to stay, such as John Forster, Daniel Maclise, William Makepeace Thackeray, Hablet Brown, Wilkie Collins and George Meredith.  All The Year Round, published articles by Dickens and other writers, Elizabeth Gaskell and William Makepeace Thackery amongst others. It was a tradition then to publish novels  in monthly instalments before being published as a whole.

Just a short walk north, across Wellington Street from Dickens Coffee House  you will find yourself in Covent Garden. It was here on the north side of the square that the Piazza Coffee House was located. Dickens sometimes stayed here but it was here that after long trips away, either to Italy or France and when he returned from America, Dickens best friend John Forster organised  parties consisting just of his male friends,to welcome him home. It has to be remembered that Covent Garden, certainly in the 18th and 19th centuries, was the centre of the prostitution trade in London. It is something to concider that Dickens, staying in Wellington Street and carousing at The Piazza Coffee House, was rubbing shoulders  with prostitutes and madams.  He set up Urania Cottage to save women from the streets but it is not at all clear whether he frequented prostitutes himself. He certainly knew where they were. He mentions to his friend Maclise in a letter inviting him to stay with his family in Broadstairs in Kent that he knew where to find young ladies in Broadstairs.  Maclise was a bachelor and womaniser.

From Covent Garden it is a short walk to The Theatre Royal and Drury Lane. Dickens loved the theatre and would have attended performances at these theatres. From Drury Lane it is a few steps to The Aldwych and then a sharp turn left into Kingsway, past Bush House one of the BBC’s iconic buildings in London and where many BBC radio stations are broadcast from including The World Service, and then a quick first right into Portugal Street.You find yourself at the heart of the LSE, the London School of Economics.  This is a maze of buildings and narrow streets and alleyways with college buildings all around, each building a different department of the LSE. 
There is a pub amongst this complex called Ye Olde White Horse.  To be found at the back of this pub is ,"The Old Curiosity Shop." It is a rickety, timber frame building, with sagging roof and low eaves. It is set amongst modern university buildings. It could never have survived there without its title emblazoned across the whitewashed plaster front.” THE OLD CURIOSITY SHOP.MADE FAMOUS BY CHARLES DICKENS.” There is a letter Dickens wrote in reply to his friend Forster. Forster had asked him whether The Old Curiosity Shop was a real place. Dickens had replied that it was but he thought it had since been demolished. Whether this building in Portrugal Street is the actual building Dickens had in mind when he wrote the novel is therefore doubtful. Of course, as the Old Curiosity Shop was so popular he could well have been saying that to protect its anonymity. Somebody decided he would make his shop popular by emblazoning that title across the front of it.
Just behind ,"The Old Curiosity Shop," is Lincolns Inn Fields. This is London’s largest open square named after Lincolns Inn which is situated on the east  side of the square. It was designed in the 1630’s by Inigo Jones. It has Sir John Soanes three houses on the north side.
In this square Dickens set a major scene of his novel Bleak House at Mr Tulkinghorns offices. The wealthiest lawyers have residences and offices in the square because of its proximity to Lincolns Inn. 

Walking east across the square from the south west corner of Lincolns Inn Fields having just emerged from Portugal Street and The Old Curiosity Shop  make your way to the elaborate, ornate brick gateway to Lincolns Inn. Once through the gateway it is like entering another world. New Square is on the right, the beautiful brick Tudor chapel on the left and Old Square straight ahead. This is one of the four remaining inns of court. To become a lawyer you have to become a member of one of the inns of court, Lincolns Inn, Grays Inn, Temple or Inner Temple. They are like the colleges of Oxford or Cambridge in many ways. A prospective lawyer starts as a student and works up through the hierarchy to become a fully fledged lawyer and barrister.
Dickens begins the opening lines of Bleak House in this way,

“London. Michaelmas Term lately over, and the Lord Chancellor sitting in Lincoln's Inn Hall. Implacable November weather……Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows among green aits and meadows; fog down the river, where it rolls defiled among the tiers of shipping, and the waterside pollutions of a great (and dirty) city……And hard by Temple Bar, in Lincoln's Inn Hall, at the very heart of the fog, sits the Lord High Chancellor in his High Court of Chancery;”


 
The entrance to Lincolns Inn.

 Once Dickens father was released from the Marshalsea Prison, his debts being paid by an inheritance from an aged aunt who had died, Dickens refused to go back to the blacking factory. His mother wanted him to continue. In the event, she used her connections to get Charles a job as a clerk with another relation of hers. Charles learned shorthand quickly and was employed recording parliamentary speeches. He later took jobs with various lawyers in Lincolns Inn and Greys Inn as a clerk. During this time he walked all over London observing life and events closely. He felt inspired to start writing reports and stories about his observations and sending them to various publications. They were published. Later they were published  together as ,"Sketches by Boz," Boz, being a pseudonym that Dickens affected.One publisher thought Dickens  a good choice to write a book for him. Popular at the time were stories about groups of friends who travelled the countryside having sporting adventures. Dickens was asked to write a book in this genre. He wrote ,"Pickwick Papers," and in the process invented situation comedy. Pickwick Papers was extremely successful.

Dickens includes lawyers and scenes set in the inns of court in many of his novels. In Pickwick Papers, Dickens describes in detail the various levels of lawyers clerk. Mr Pickwick is embroiled in a court case with Mrs Bardell, his landlady. She faints into his arms in one scene of the novel and wakes to his concerned embraces. She immediately takes this as a betrothal of marriage which Mr Pickwick certainly does not intend. She takes him to court for breaking a promise he never made and Dickens describes the long and arduous legal proceedings expertly, with great humour and pathos. The inns of court are featured in this episode. Mr  Perkin, Mr Pickwick’s lawyer is situated in Grays Inn. Serjeant Snubbin, a serjeant being one of the highest levels of lawyer in Dickens time,  has his office in Old Court, Lincolns Inn, Dodgson and Fogg, Mrs Bardells lawyers, are situated in Temple. Dickens reveals the tricks and subterfuge and downright dishonesty of the law profession.

From Lincolns Inn you come out on to Chancery Lane where many lawyers have their offices too. The London Silver Vaults are situated in Chancery Lane. Dickens mentions this road often in his novels. Turn left down Chancery Lane and you will soon reach High Holburn, a busy road running at right angles to Chancery Lane. Turn right along High Holburn and at the cross roads with Grays Inn Road you can see the Tudor, black and white timber front of Staples Inn which used to be another inns of court but is no longer. It is reputed to be one of the few remaining buildings from The Fire of London in1666. Across the road is the large pink edifice of the Prudential Insurance Company which is on the site of Furnivals Inn where Dickens had lodgings soon after marrying Catherine Hogarth.
Walking along Grays inn road you pass Grays Inn on the left and catch a glimpse of the park surrounded by lawyers offices that make up Grays Inn. At the cross road with Theobolds Road turn left bordering the northern extremity of Grays Inn  and then  turn right along John Street. The houses here are all 18th century with their beautiful elaborate porticoes  and solid oak doors with highly polished lion and Greek goddess door knockers. John  Street leads you  straight into Doughty Street and not far along on the right hand side you will reach number 48 which was Dickens residence. He moved into 48 Doughty Street on March 25th 1837. He had a three year lease on the house at £80 a year. Dickens described it himself,
“It was a pleasant twelve-room dwelling of pink brick, with three stories and an attic, a white arched entrance door on the street level, and a small private garden in the rear. It was located just north of Gray's Inn ... a genteel private street with a lodge at each end and gates that were closed at night by a porter in a gold-laced hat and a mulberry-coloured coat with the Doughty arms on its buttons."
He moved in with his wife Catherine but also her 17 year old sister Mary and his younger brother Frederick. Mary died in the house in 1837 not long after moving in. It was said the experience affected Dickens for the rest of his life. Little Nell may have been modelled on her. 48 Doughty Street is the Dickens Museum and well worth a visit. 
At the end of Doughty Street you can catch a glimpse of the corner of Coram Fields the site of The Foundling Hospital founded by Thomas Coram. Dickens has a character called Tatty Coram in Little Dorrit.She is named after Coram Fields by her adoptive parents obliterating her real name and so being reminded of her past. She is adopted  as a playmate for the families biological daughter, Pet, and although treated well i a physical sense, she is not loved as an individual in herself. The other side of Coram Fields is Tavistock Square where Dickens rented a very large house and from where he separated from his wife Catherine. He was having an affair with Ellen Ternan at the time. 48 Doughty Street is the end of our walk.


48 Doughty Street

There are many other Dickens related sites throughout London but this walk will take you through many of the sites connected with Dickens working world as well as some of the scenes from his novels. The walk takes about an hour and twenty minutes. If you want to spend time in the Dickens Museum in Doughty Street you will need an extra hour.

For a pub lunch you could choose no better an establishment than Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese on Fleet Street.
You have to retrace your steps from Doughty  Street to Chancery Lane and walk the full length of Chancery Lane to Fleet Street. Turn left along Fleet Street  and you will reach Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese, the oldest pub in London, within sight of St Pauls Cathedral. Dickens himself dined here and Charles Darney and Sydney Carton met here in A Tale  of Two Cities. Many famous people have drunk and dined here including Theodore Roosevelt.






7 comments:

  1. Absolutely first rate post. I loved this! I will bookmark, and next time I'm in London, someday soon I hope, I will do this walk.

    I liked the biographical info you provided within the context of the tour.

    Great job! Thanks.

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  2. Wonderful - I, too, am bookmarking this so I can walk it next time I'm in London (isn't that lovely to contemplate?) Thank you for a wonderful blog!

    Julie

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  3. Tony, I would love to do that walk. But, really, after reading your wonderful post, I feel I already have! Funny, we were just talking about Dickens last night. After two nights of making a go at rereading A Tale of Two Cities after many years, my husband put it down and said he's done with Dickens, in print; loves the films of the books, but is no longer enjoying the books.

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  4. Jane, Julie, Becky and Jean, I now hope to catch sight of you all walking down The Strand sometime soon. London is complex with many layers of history. It is sometimes good to take one piece and follow it, such as the world of Charles Dickens.
    Jean, as for your husband giving up on reading Dickens novels tell him from me,"Don't do it!!" I think the trick is to give yourself time with a Dickens novel. You have to tune in to the language, the rhythms, get a feel for it and not to rush. Just enjoy the words and the characters. It's not a race.

    I think it is the same with reading Jane Austen or Shakespeare,their language is unfamiliar to start with.

    When I read a modern novel I am sometimes hit by the harsh glare of modern terms and sentence structures.

    But I think the same applies to any good writing from any period, you can learn about life from it, it is a bit of life in itself and it helps you develop as a person.

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  5. Thanks for the tour. It was very informative.Love the pictures and your new background.

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  6. Great post, Tony!

    I look forward to this walk.

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  7. some body told me that there are some names of the persons who gave many laws to the world is written on a wall of Lincl'n inn hall, can any body send a photo of that wall(Names of these persons) to me on abdullahmohammad36@yahoo.com
    thanks

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